Asymptotic performance of linear receivers in MIMO fading channels

  • Authors:
  • K. Raj Kumar;Giuseppe Caire;Aris L. Moustakas

  • Affiliations:
  • Department of Electrical Engineering-Systems, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA;Department of Electrical Engineering-Systems, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA;Department of Physics, National and Capodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece

  • Venue:
  • IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
  • Year:
  • 2009

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Linear receivers are an attractive low-complexity alternative to optimal processing for multiple-antenna multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communications. In this paper, we characterize the information-theoretic performance of MIMO linear receivers in two different asymptotic regimes. For fixed number of antennas, we investigate the limit of error probability in the high-signal-to noise-ratio (SNR) regime in terms of the diversity-multiplexing tradeoff (DMT). Following this, we characterize the error probability for fixed SNR in the regime of large (but finite) number of antennas. As far as the DMT is concerned, we report a negative result: we show that both linear zero-forcing (ZF) and linear minimum meansquare error (MMSE) receivers achieve the same DMT, which is largely suboptimal even in the case where outer coding and decoding is performed across the antennas. We also provide an approximate quantitative analysis of the markedly different behavior of the MMSE and ZF receivers at finite rate and nonasymptotic SNR, and show that while the ZF receiver achieves poor diversity at any finite rate, the MMSE receiver error curve slope fIattens out progressively, as the coding rate increases. When SNR is fixed and the number of antennas becomes large, we show that the mutual information at the output of an MMSE or ZF linear receiver has fluctuations that converge in distribution to a Gaussian random variable, whose mean and variance can be characterized in closed form. This analysis extends to the linear receiver case a well-known result previously obtained for the optimal receiver. Simulations reveal that the asymptotic analysis captures accurately the outage behavior of systems even with a moderate number of antennas.