A quantitative comparison of graph-based models for Internet topology
IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking (TON)
A random graph model for massive graphs
STOC '00 Proceedings of the thirty-second annual ACM symposium on Theory of computing
Evolution and Structure of the Internet: A Statistical Physics Approach
Evolution and Structure of the Internet: A Statistical Physics Approach
Understanding internet topology: principles, models, and validation
IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking (TON)
Inferring subnets in router-level topology collection studies
Proceedings of the 7th ACM SIGCOMM conference on Internet measurement
Modeling internet topology dynamics
ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review
Fast Dynamics in Internet Topology: Observations and First Explanations
ICIMP '09 Proceedings of the 2009 Fourth International Conference on Internet Monitoring and Protection
Quantifying ases multiconnectivity using multicast information
Proceedings of the 9th ACM SIGCOMM conference on Internet measurement conference
Power-Law Distributions in Empirical Data
SIAM Review
Understanding and modeling the internet topology: economics and evolution perspective
IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking (TON)
On the impact of layer-2 on node degree distribution
IMC '10 Proceedings of the 10th ACM SIGCOMM conference on Internet measurement
INFOCOM'96 Proceedings of the Fifteenth annual joint conference of the IEEE computer and communications societies conference on The conference on computer communications - Volume 2
Termination of multipartite graph series arising from complex network modelling
COCOA'10 Proceedings of the 4th international conference on Combinatorial optimization and applications - Volume Part I
Finding, counting and listing all triangles in large graphs, an experimental study
WEA'05 Proceedings of the 4th international conference on Experimental and Efficient Algorithms
Network topologies: inference, modeling, and generation
IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials
INTERNET TOPOLOGY DISCOVERY: A SURVEY
IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials
Routing of multipoint connections
IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
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Modeling the properties of the Internet topology aims at generating large scale artificial IP networks that mimic properties of real ones for simulation purposes. Current models typically consider the Internet as a simple graph where edges are point-to-point connections between routers. This approach does not take into account point-to-multipoint connections that exist at lower layers in the network, e.g. layer-2 clouds, such as Ethernet switches or MPLS networks. Instead, such physical point-to-multipoint connections are modeled as several logical IP level point-to-point connections. In this paper, we rely on recent developments in topology discovery based on IGMP probing that allows for revealing part of the network's layer-2 structure. We take advantage of this additional knowledge for proposing an Internet model based on bipartite graphs considering both point-to-point and point-to-multipoint connections. Our model remains simple: it only takes as input the node degree sequence for both layer-2 and layer-3 nodes, randomly generates a bipartite graph respecting those distributions, and then derives the corresponding layer-3 topology. We show that, despite the simplicity of our model, realistic network properties, such as high local density, emerge naturally. This is in contrast with the now common belief that such properties can only appear with more intricate models or if explicitly injected in random models. Besides, we also provide evidences of how the analysis performed at the bipartite level might shed light on important properties of the real network structure. Finally, we propose and evaluate a bipartite graph generator based on our model that only takes two synthetic node degree distributions as input.