Mathematica: a system for doing mathematics by computer (2nd ed.)
Mathematica: a system for doing mathematics by computer (2nd ed.)
End-to-end routing behavior in the Internet
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Why we don't know how to simulate the Internet
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A quantitative comparison of graph-based models for Internet topology
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Self-similarity in World Wide Web traffic: evidence and possible causes
IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking (TON)
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Scaling of multicast trees: comments on the Chuang-Sirbu scaling law
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On power-law relationships of the Internet topology
Proceedings of the conference on Applications, technologies, architectures, and protocols for computer communication
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Topology modeling via cluster graphs
IMW '01 Proceedings of the 1st ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Internet Measurement
Analysis of the autonomous system network topology
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On the stability of network distance estimation
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Network topology generators: degree-based vs. structural
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On the topology of multicast trees
IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking (TON)
On the Spectrum and Structure of Internet Topology Graphs
IICS '02 Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Innovative Internet Computing Systems
Analysis and Comparison of Internet Topology Generators
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Peer Pressure: Distributed Recovery from Attacks in Peer-to-Peer Systems
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Influence of Network Topology on Protocol Simulation
ICN '01 Proceedings of the First International Conference on Networking-Part 1
GridG: generating realistic computational grids
ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review
Conductance and congestion in power law graphs
SIGMETRICS '03 Proceedings of the 2003 ACM SIGMETRICS international conference on Measurement and modeling of computer systems
Power laws and the AS-level internet topology
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On realistic network topologies for simulation
MoMeTools '03 Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM workshop on Models, methods and tools for reproducible network research
On the emergence of highly variable distributions in the autonomous system topology
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A first-principles approach to understanding the internet's router-level topology
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An algebraic approach to practical and scalable overlay network monitoring
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Does AS size determine degree in as topology?
ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review - Special issue on wireless extensions to the internet
Synthesizing Realistic Computational Grids
Proceedings of the 2003 ACM/IEEE conference on Supercomputing
ACSC '05 Proceedings of the Twenty-eighth Australasian conference on Computer Science - Volume 38
Understanding internet topology: principles, models, and validation
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Local heuristics and the emergence of spanning subgraphs in complex networks
Theoretical Computer Science - Complex networks
Small-world characteristics of internet topologies and implications on multicast scaling
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On multicast trees: structure and size estimation
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Graph model selection using maximum likelihood
ICML '06 Proceedings of the 23rd international conference on Machine learning
A framework for realistic and systematic multicast performance evaluation
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Towards unbiased end-to-end network diagnosis
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A link weight assignment algorithm for traffic-engineered networks
Computer Networks: The International Journal of Computer and Telecommunications Networking
Internet resiliency to attacks and failures under BGP policy routing
Computer Networks: The International Journal of Computer and Telecommunications Networking
Relevance of massively distributed explorations of the internet topology: qualitative results
Computer Networks: The International Journal of Computer and Telecommunications Networking
Visualization of large networks with min-cut plots, A-plots and R-MAT
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Multidomain Diagnosis of End-to-End Service Failures in Hierarchically Routed Networks
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Peer-to-Peer in Metric Space and Semantic Space
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Analysis of hybrid P2P overlay network topology
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Evaluating the partial deployment of an AS-level IP traceback system
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GMAC: An overlay multicast network for mobile agent platforms
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TopGen - internet router-level topology generation based on technology constraints
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Lord of the links: a framework for discovering missing links in the internet topology
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Recent empirical studies [6] have shown that Internet topologies exhibit power laws of the form y = x α for the following relationships: (P1) outdegree of node (domain or router) versus rank; (P2) number of nodes versus outdegree; (P3) number of node pairs within a neighborhood versus neighborhood size (in hops); and (P4) eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix versus rank. However, causes for the appearance of such power laws have not been convincingly given. In this paper, we examine four factors in the formation of Internet topologies. These factors are (F1) preferential connectivity of a new node to existing nodes; (F2) incremental growth of the network; (F3) distribution of nodes in space; and (F4) locality of edge connections. In synthetically generated network topologies, we study the relevance of each factor in causing the aforementioned power laws as well as other properties, namely diameter, average path length and clustering coefficient. Different kinds of network topologies are generated: (T1) topologies generated using our parametrized generator, we call BRITE; (T2) random topologies generated using the well-known Waxman model [12]; (T3) Transit-Stub topologies generated using GT-ITM tool [3]; and (T4) regular grid topologies. We observe that some generated topologies may not obey power laws P1 and P2. Thus, the existence of these power laws can be used to validate the accuracy of a given tool in generating representative Internet topologies. Power laws P3 and P4 were observed in nearly all considered topologies, but different topologies showed different values of the power exponent α. Thus, while the presence of power laws P3 and P4 do not give strong evidence for the representativeness of a generated topology, the value of α in P3 and P4 can be used as a litmus test for the representativeness of a generated topology. We also find that factors F1 and F2 are the key contributors in our study which provide the resemblance of our generated topologies to that of the Internet.