Quantifying path exploration in the internet

  • Authors:
  • Ricardo Oliveira;Beichuan Zhang;Dan Pei;Rafit Izhak-Ratzin;Lixia Zhang

  • Affiliations:
  • University of California, Los Angeles;University of Arizona;ATT Labs Research;University of California, Los Angeles;University of California, Los Angeles

  • Venue:
  • Proceedings of the 6th ACM SIGCOMM conference on Internet measurement
  • Year:
  • 2006

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A number of previous measurement studies [10, 12, 17] have shown the existence of path exploration and slow convergence in the global Internet routing system, and a number of protocol enhancements have been proposed to remedy the problem [21, 15, 4, 20, 5]. However all the previous measurements were conducted over a small number of testing prefixes. There has been no systematic study to quantify the pervasiveness of BGP slow convergence in the operational Internet, nor there is any known effort to deploy any of the proposed solutions.In this paper we present our measurement results from identifying BGP slow convergence events across the entire global routing table. Our data shows that the severity of path exploration and slow convergence varies depending on where prefixes are originated and where the observations are made in the Internet routing hierarchy. In general, routers in tier-1 ISPs observe less path exploration, hence shorter convergence delays than routers in edge ASes, and prefixes originated from tier-1 ISPs also experience less path exploration than those originated from edge ASes. Our data also shows that the convergence time of route fail-over events is similar to that of new route announcements, and significantly shorter than that of route failures, which confirms our earlier analytical results [19]. In addition, we also developed a usage-time based path preference inference method which can be used by future studies of BGP dynamics.